This summary document includes key takeaways from a convening held in July 2018 on key issues and considerations for economic feasibility studies for inclusionary housing, along with a sample Statement of Work that local governments can build on when commissioning such a study. A full, detailed report of findings from the convening is also available. View Summary
Grounded Solutions Network’s Inclusionary Housing Database Map is an interactive tool that includes data from two surveys: 1) a national census of local inclusionary housing programs that was conducted in 2016 by Grounded Solutions Network and was updated thereafter, and 2) a national survey of state-level legislation and judicial decisions that are related to the adoption of local inclusionary housing programs. Learn More
Vince Wang, Research Manager at Grounded Solutions Network, recently compiled a policy highlight that draws from a 2016 national survey of programs published by Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, to spotlight prevalent program characteristics and their implications for the field. Though the findings are subject to geographical biases of the areas surveyed, the results offer significant insights into the inclusionary housing programs currently operating across the nation. View Highlight
This article from Grounded Solutions Network offers tips to help communicate about inclusionary housing in ways that circumvent common misperceptions and creates a new narrative for policymakers in moderate markets and more conservative political climates. Not every message is right for every community; advocates and policymakers should tailor these messages to their circumstances. View Report
A 2011 report prepared by the View Report.Project from the experiences of five State and three Local Housing Trust Funds outlines three model approaches: cross-subsidization between higher and lower income housing, supporting on-going operating and maintenance costs, and providing project or tenant-based rental assistance.
The Visit Site.Project is a program of the Center for Community Change. The project helps communities establish effective local housing trust funds.
This report provides an overview of the range of mechanisms that local governments use to ensure that housing funds invested in affordable homeownership today are able to serve additional families into the future. Download report.
The state of New Jersey publishes a very comprehensive manual to guide the development and administration of local inclusionary housing programs. While some of the procedures are specific to New Jersey’s Fair Housing Act, most of the manual describes best practices that would be applicable to inclusionary programs in other states. View Manual
Grounded Solution Networks’ Video Learning Series offers an in-depth 60 minute course on developing an effective formula to preserve long term affordability for affordable homeownership units. View video
This report provides an easy to digest overview of the goals for shared equity resale formulas and describes some of the most common options. View Report
The Stewardship Standards for Homeownership Programs was developed collaboratively by a number of national organizations, practitioners, and experts for the purpose of providing an educational resource and measurable framework to help homeownership programs with long-term affordability requirements achieve excellence and maximize impact. View Standards
This report by two California attorneys describes in detail the proven mechanisms that local governments have used to protect long-term affordability of below market-rate homeownership units. The report includes case studies of successful litigation over the enforcement of affordable homeownership restrictions. View Report
The deferred maintenance of resale-restricted homes can significantly undermine the success of the program. View Guide, leaders in the long-term stewardship of resale-restricted housing industry, have started implementing repair and replacement reserves as part of their stewardship program in order to better ensure the long-term viability of the homes themselves. This guide outlines various options for funding and implementing such a strategy.
The added cost and unpredictability of homeowners association (HOA) dues can affect the success of inclusionary housing policies. Many inclusionary housing programs encounter the problem of rising HOA dues, which undermine the affordability of below market-rate (View Document) homes. Particularly in high-priced markets, HOA dues can form a significant portion of the home cost for low-income residents. While there are a number of best practices that help protect affordable homeowners, there are no perfect solutions. This document lists best practices from which to create a successful HOA policy.
Inclusionary housing programs require a certain level of ongoing administration and oversight in order to effectively produce and preserve affordable housing opportunities. This paper outlines several of the common tasks associated with ongoing administration of inclusionary housing programs and describes some of the approaches to staffing and paying for their implementation. The paper also provides an overview of the choices that have the greatest impact on the jurisdiction’s administrative workload. View Paper
This report by the National Housing Conference’s Center for Housing Policy compares the range of affordability preservation mechanism used to protect public investment in affordable homeownership units. View Report
This paper analyzes a set of 20 inclusionary housing programs to highlight how long affordability periods, strong legal mechanisms, carefully designed resale formulas, dedicated program stewardship, and strategic partnerships can help preserve affordable homes. View Paper
This policy brief presents four ideas for improving the flexibility of inclusionary housing and expanding the menu of options available to developers – while at the same time promoting mixed-income neighborhoods. View Policy Brief
This memo highlights lessons learned from U.S. cities that have implemented effective but flexible inclusionary housing policies including three main types of practices: (1) geographically targeted policies by census tract; (2) policies limited to specific zoning districts; and (3) policies which vary by project type. View memo
This worksheet gives municipalities the tools to design the basic structure of an inclusionary housing program. The worksheet helps municipalities define need, outline a basic program structure, plan policy choices, describe View Worksheet, and decide compliance alternatives.
(Hollister, Timothy S., Allison M. McKeene, and Danielle G. McGrath. 2007. Washington, DC: National Association of Home Builders.) This study by the National Association of Home Builders is the most comprehensive survey of state laws and policies that encourage, prohibit, or otherwise impact the design of local inclusionary housing ordinances. View Study
This memo outlines the reasons municipalities should complete a View Memo, the key components of a typical , and Grounded Solutions’ best practices for designing and preparing inclusionary housing feasibility studies.
This paper examines how inclusionary housing policies fared during the nation’s historic housing downturn, as well as the major issues and opportunities that confront inclusionary housing today. View Paper
The Economics and Planning Literature on Inclusionary Housing Policies lists key peer-reviewed studies from the economics and planning literature on inclusionary housing policies. In general, these studies address the market effects of both View Policy Briefand inclusionary housing policies, including their effects on housing production, housing prices, and land values. For those key studies in this area, the document includes a short description of the authors’ findings and methodology.
Effects on Housing Prices addresses whether cities that implement an inclusionary housing policy will experience significant increases in the price of market-rate housing. The memo draws on an extensive review of the current theory and evidence in the economic research to answer this question. View Policy Brief
Effects on Housing Production addresses whether cities that implement an inclusionary housing policy will experience a decline in the production of new market-rate homes. The memo draws on an extensive review of the current theory and evidence in the economic research to answer this question. View Policy Brief
Critics often claim that inclusionary housing policies are not effective at producing affordable housing and have negative impacts on local housing markets. However, the most highly regarded empirical evidence suggests that inclusionary housing programs can produce affordable housing, and that these programs do not lead to significant declines in overall housing production or to increases in market-rate prices. Read report
This guidebook to inclusionary housing includes a high level overview of the legal issues and key federal and state court opinions that influence the design of local inclusionary housing ordinances. View guidebook
One of the primary sources of formal opposition to the idea of inclusionary housing has been the Reason Foundation, a libertarian think tank based in southern California. Their research and opinion pieces consistently argue that high housing prices are the result of too much government regulation, and they see inclusionary policies as yet another requirement that adds to the cost of building. View website
Detailed profiles of inclusionary housing programs in Boston, San Francisco, Denver, Sacramento and San Diego. View profiles
What makes one community more quickly adopt an inclusionary housing policy than another community? Using a database developed in collaboration with Grounded Solutions Network, researchers at the National Housing Conference and the University of Maryland developed a model to explain the rate of program adoption in local jurisdictions across the country. View report
This report examines inclusionary policies all over the state of California and looks at their effectiveness, what kinds of homes were produced, who lived in these homes, and the overall impact on the city or county. View Report
HousingPolicy.org is a resource site designed to help local policymakers understand local housing policy options and identify more resources to support affordable housing. View Website
This tool makes it easy to compare wages and housing costs to visualize the challenge that American workers face in paying for housing. The database includes wage and housing cost data from 108 regions and 81 common occupations. Paycheck to Paycheck Tool
PolicyMap provides a user friendly and graphical way to explore data about housing markets, the need for affordable housing, and the existing stock of affordable housing in every community. Visit PolicyMap
This document briefly summarizes a variety of potential dedicated revenue sources to support affordable housing development, including taxes and fees, voter-approved bonds, debt and equity funds, and special purpose revenue districts. For each type, the matrix describes how the revenue source works, how it is implemented, its revenue generating potential, as well as some examples. View Policy Brief
This report examines 11 inclusionary programs across the United States to determine the extent to which the policies serve lower-income families and provide inclusionary residents with access to low-poverty neighborhoods. They also evaluate whether inclusionary programs offer lower-income children opportunities to access high-performing schools. View Report
Inclusionary housing is just one of several strategies described on the National Housing Conference’s Inclusive Communities Toolkit. The site provides an overview of the full range of strategies that communities employ to promote and protect economic diversity. Visit Website